ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ: 43 ПРАКТИЧЕСКИХ ПРАВИЛА

В этом разделе обсуждаются 43 правила обучения, которые, как мы полагаем, должны самым непосредственным образом использоваться учащимся, преподавателем и проектировщиком.

14 практических правил научения указывают в общем виде наиболее эффективные способы научения. В основе этих правил лежит то, что учащийся должен активно перерабатывать новый материал, связывая его с тем, что он уже знает, использовать проверенные стратегии обучения, концентрировать внимание на материале и применять самопроверку.

20 практических правил ориентированы на тех, кто имеет дело с проектированием обучающих систем. Важно, чтобы проектировщик сначала анализировал характер предполагаемого процесса научения: является ли это научением по тексту, научением решению трудных задач или же научением сложным когнитивным навыкам — каждая из этих задач характеризуется своими наиболее важными особенностями. Для проектировщика обучающих систем также важно оптимизировать длительность периода ознакомления с инструкциями. Например, его малая продолжительность вовсе не гарантирует существенного выигрыша времени при овладении общими навыками.

Последние девять практических правил предназначены специально для проектировщиков систем; они направлены на то, чтобы любой оператор мог с большей легкостью научиться работать с конкретной системой. В связи с появлением автомати- зироваиных, а во многих случаях и полностью основанных на ЭВМ систем, где обычно применяются блоки, использующие учебный материал, рассмотрение вопросов обучения на такой системе должно быть неотъемлемой частью деятельности проектировщика. Мы предполагаем, что подход проектировщика к данной задаче сходен с подходом, которым пользуются разработчики обучающих систем: последние детально анализируют, какие задачи будут решаться данной системой, а также рассматривают различные способы их решения. Разумеется, проектировщик системы должен исегда мысленно оценивать соотношение между тем, насколько легко научиться работать с данной системой, и тем, насколько мощной должна быть эта система. Исходя из этого он может увеличить мощность и гибкость системы благодаря способности ЭВМ давать данные в простой форме, наличию восстанавливающих процедур, а также возможности практиковаться и использовать информативную машинную графику.

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